This is mainly due to the “self-bonding” or catenation of carbon that prevents the complete saturation of the hydrocarbon by the formation of double or triple bonds. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. Have questions or comments? Other catalysts which can be used are Pt, Pd-BaSo4, Adams catalyst (Pt2O) or Wilkinson catalyst (R3PRhCl), etc. Metallic compounds: zinc, titanium, calcium, magnesium, vanadium, copper, nickel, and iron. Chemistry. If the raw petroleum is of a high density then the petroleum classification is termed ‘heavy' and if it is of a low density the petroleum classification is termed 'light'. it also described the types of hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon - Hydrocarbon - Physical properties: The physical properties of alkenes and alkynes are generally similar to those of alkanes or cycloalkanes with equal numbers of carbon atoms. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. They are as follow is. Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen. The important fuels like Petrol, kerosene, coal gas, CNG, LPG etc. Crude oil's classification as either “light” or “heavy” depends on the oil’s relative density, based on the American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity. (hī'drōkär`bən), any organic compound composed solely of the elements hydrogen and carbon. Classification of Hydrocarbons The compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen in their molecules are called hydrocarbons. The ability of hydrocarbons to bond to themselves is known as catenation. The chemistry of these compounds is called organic chemistry. For example, Carotenes is an organic pigment which is found in green leaves and carrots. For example LPG (liquefied petroleum gas), CNG (Liquefied natural gas). Gives more substituted alkene as major products. Further, they possess large internal energy which renders them their importance. Open-chain or Aliphatic Compounds; Closed-chain … Alkenes are more reactive than alkanes due to the presence of the double bond. The above reaction is called as “Sabatier-Sender son’s” reaction. The four general classes of hydrocarbons are: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and arenes. This class can be further divided into two groups: … Introduction to classification of Hydrocarbon: Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons. e.g., methane (CH 4), … The alkanes are saturated hydrocarbonsthat is, hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds. Learn Videos. For example, CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3 has more Boiling point. They are used in the manufacturing of polymers such as polyethene, polystyrene etc. Hydrocarbons. Aromatic compounds derive their names from the fact that many of these compounds in the early days of discovery were grouped because they were oils with fragrant odors. Hydrocarbons are classified into two categories known as open chain hydrocarbons and closed chain hydrocarbons. The classification was done based on their source and properties. Within the exploration projects, shallow water projects are among the ones with highest profitability and least uncertainty. Introduction to Hydrocarbons. CLASSIFICATION OF HYDROCARBONS The term HYDROCARBONS means organic compounds which contain only carbon and hydrogen. Terpenes are further classified by the number of carbons: monoterpenes (C 10), sesquiterpenes (C 15), diterpenes (C 20), etc. The alkanes can be produced from alkenes or alkynes through hydrogenation. Older chemists classified hydrocarbons as either aliphatic or aromatic. Sometimes catalysts are used to speed up the reaction. Class 11. Another term used to describe alkenes is olefins. However, today we classify hydrocarbons on the basis of structure and not merely on the origin. Study Materials Hydrocarbons: Hydrocarbon Classification : Aliphatics: open chains 1. alkanes ("paraffins"): contain only carbon-carbon single bonds (are saturated). The reducing agents which can be used are LiAlH4, NaBH4, NaNH2, etc. Hydrocarbons are organic compounds composed of only carbon and hydrogen. Alkenes contain one or more carbon-carbon double bonds. The hydrocarbons differ both in the total number of carbon and hydrogen atoms in their molecules and in the proportion of hydrogen to carbon. The general term aliphatic hydrocarbon refers to a compound that has a structure based on straight or branched chains or rings of carbon atoms. Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that are entirely made up of only two kinds of atoms – carbon and hydrogen. Boiling point depends on the following factors: Alkanes having high molecular mass and high boiling points. The carbon atoms join together to form the framework of the compound, and the hydrogen atoms attach to them in many different configurations. As such, it was found out that Aliphatic hydrocarbons were derived from chemical degradation of fats or oils whereas aromatic hydrocarbons contained substances that were a result of chemical degradation of certain plant extracts. 744 Chapter 21 • Hydrocarbons Section 221.11.1 Introduction to Hydrocarbons MAIN Idea Hydrocarbons are carbon-containing organic compounds that provide a source of energy and raw materials. Missed the LibreFest? • Saturated Hydrocarbon A hydrocarbon is said to be saturated if it contains only C—C single bonds. are all hydrocarbons or their mixture. All addition reactions in alkenes are possible. The most common aromatic hydrocarbons are those that contain a benzene ring. Overview. 3. Discuss the properties of alkanes, alkenes and alkynes and how to differentiate between them. 4 mins. More favoured in non-polar, aprotic solvents. From Carboxylic acids through Decarboxylation: Most of the reactions involving the preparation of alkenes involve elimination process. Density of oil is determined by the length of the hydrocarbons it contains. Hydrocarbon, any of a class of organic chemical compounds composed only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). The hydrocarbons can be divided into various homologous series. The existence of hydrocarbons is seen in plants and trees. Carbon has the ability to bond with itself to form long chains and, as a result, millions of compounds from simple hydrocarbons to large biomolecules such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. These organic compounds find their application in the manufacturing of drugs and dyes as a starting material. General formula: C H. For example: Ethane CH3—CH3 • Unsaturated Hydrocarbon • Aromatic Hydrocarbon Benzene and its derivatives are called aromatic compounds. Classification of Hydrocarbons There are many types of hydrocarbons, but in IGCSE chemistry we will be dealing with only 2 of them, Alkane and Alkene. https://chem.libretexts.org/@app/auth/2/login?returnto=https%3A%2F%2Fchem.libretexts.org%2FCourses%2FPurdue%2FPurdue_Chem_26100%253A_Organic_Chemistry_I_(Wenthold)%2FChapter_03%253A_Structure_of_Alkanes%2F3.1_Classification_of_Hydrocarbons, information contact us at info@libretexts.org, status page at https://status.libretexts.org. This is accomplished by supplying an adequate amount of heat and pressure. If it contains a great deal of long-chain hydrocarbons, the … There are 3 mechanisms suggested for the elimination reactions. Aromatic hydrocarbons contain ring structure… Classification of Hydrocarbons. Download hydrocarbons JEE Previous Year Solved Questions PDF. Hydrocarbons are the simplest class of organic compounds and are composed solely of hydrogen and carbon. However, today we classify hydrocarbons on the basis of structure and not merely on the origin. Benzene, one of the simplest aromatic hydrocarbons, serves as raw material for the synthesis of many synthetic drugs. Hydrocarbons – organic molecules which consist only of carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. 3. Chemical Classification: Hydrocarbons (contain hydrogen and carbon atoms) Summary: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of over 100 different chemicals that are formed during the incomplete burning of coal, oil and gas, garbage, or other organic substances like tobacco or charbroiled meat. Classification of Hydrocarbons. This measurement reflects how light or heavy a crude oil is compared to water. Note: Alkanes with only even number of carbons atoms can be produced. Real-World Reading Link If you have ridden in a car or a bus, you have used hydrocarbons. By using this definition, four classes of hydrocarbons are included: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and aromatic. Older chemists classified hydrocarbons as either aliphatic or aromatic. There are two main classes of hydrocarbons - aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen. The organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen atoms are known as hydrocarbons. With such capabilities, they can form more complex molecules like cyclohexane and in rare instances aromatic hydrocarbons like benzene. Alkenes are a class of hydrocarbons (e.g, containing only carbon and hydrogen) unsaturated compounds with at least one carbon-to-carbon double bond. The molecular formula for these compounds is CxHy. They serve as lubricating oil and grease. Eg: C2H6 has more boiling point than CH4. Terpenes (/ ˈ t ɜːr p iː n /) are a class of natural products consisting of compounds with the formula (C 5 H 8) n.Comprising more than 30,000 compounds, these unsaturated hydrocarbons are produced predominantly by plants, particularly conifers. Alkanes are saturated, open chain hydrocarbons containing carbon-carbon single bonds. Alkanes with 10 C-atoms or less are generally gases at room temperatures more than 10 C-atoms, the molecules are gases or liquid. The hydrocarbons, which contain atoms linked on the open chain are known as open-chain compounds. … General formula: C H. 2. alkenes ("olefins"): contain a single carbon-carbon double bond. The four general classes of hydrocarbons are: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and arenes. Hydrocarbons and Oxides of Carbon: Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide Nomenclature and Preparation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Concepts, Q&A Classification of … Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. Alkynes contain one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds. Furthermore, hydrocarbons such as propane and butane are used for commercial fuel purposes in the form of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). That article is very good and simple for understanding the concept of hydro-carbons. Open chain hydrocarbons are also called aliphatic hydrocarbons or acyclic hydrocarbons. Classification of Hydrocarbons. Classification of hydrocarbons’ exploration and exploitation projects 4 most profitable and largest ones (in terms of resources) are exploration projects. Hydrocarbons are the principal constituents of petroleum and natural gas. All organic compounds are divided into two broad classes based upon the pattern of chain of carbon atoms:. Start studying Classifications of Hydrocarbons/ Functional Groups in Hydrocarbons. Alkanes generally having low boiling and melting points owing to their weak Vanderwal’s interaction. Hydrocarbons can feature simple or relatively complex structures and can be generally classified into four subcategories, namely alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and aren’t. Legal. Hydrocarbon Class 11 Formulas & Notes Hydrocarbons are composed of Carbon and hydrogen. Hydrocarbons are the organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen only, e.g., alkane, alkene and alkynes. This process plays a very important role in the commercial production of diesel fuel and gasoline. Overview of Hydrocarbons. The classification was done based on their source and properties. Depending upon the types of carbon-carbon bonds present, they can be classified into tree main categories: 1) Saturated Hydrocarbon 2) Unsaturated Hydrocarbon 3) Aromatic Hydrocarbon 4. NOMENCLATURE AND CLASSIFICATION OF HYDROCARBONS Nomenclature of Aliphatic Compounds According to IUPAC system, the name of organic compound, in general consists of the following parts. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. Classification of Hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbons can be classified in the following three categories, on the basis of the bonds present between carbon-carbon atoms. Meanwhile, cracking of Hydrocarbons is a process in which heavy organic molecules are broken down into lighter molecules. H2 gas is passed over a metal surface such as Ni, Pt along with the alkenes to produce alkane. Hydrocarbons Class 11 Notes Chemistry Chapter 13 • Hydrocarbon A compound of carbon and hydrogen is known as hydrocarbon. 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Important topics - Hydrocarbons (i) Classification of hydrocarbons (ii) Alkanes (iii) Alkenes (iv) Alkynes (v) Aromatic . HYDROCARBONS are the compounds containing carbon and hydrogen only. Alkanes. Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon compounds. These hydrocarbons make up to 98% of natural crude rubber. Less substituted alkenes formed as a major product. All these eliminations are β- eliminations. Non-Hydrocarbon Components In addition to hydrocarbons, crude oils contain amounts of: Organic non-hydrocarbon, sulfur-, nitrogen-, and oxygen-containing compounds. Alkynes can be prepared from alkyl halides and alcohols. Benzene generally undergoes electrophilic substitution reactions. ⇒ Check: Basic Concepts of Organic Chemistry. In this following topic we will discuss different types of hydrocarbon. As defined by IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry, the classifications for hydrocarbons are: They are of various type according to their structure. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Plus I will cover some concepts about a derivative of hydrocarbons called Alcohols. The study of hydrocarbons can provide insight into the chemical properties of other functional groups and their preparation. Alkanes are very feebly soluble in water but they are soluble in non-polar solvents such as Benzene, CCl4, etc. Alkanes having same molecular mass but having a different number of branches, the one with less branching has more boiling point this is because of the Vanderwal’s force weak on as area increases. As such, it was found out that Aliphatic hydrocarbons were derived from chemical degradation of fats or oils whereas aromatic hydrocarbons contained substances that were a result of chemical degradation of certain plant extracts. For instance, alkanes, alkynes or alkenes, the amount of bonded hydrogen decreases in alkenes and alkynes. Hydrocarbons are compounds comprised exclusively of carbon and hydrogen and they are by far the dominant components of crude oil, processed petroleum hydrocarbons (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, fuel oil, and lubricating oil), coal tar, creosote, dyestuff, and pyrolysis waste products. Typically, hydrocarbons are colourless gases that have very weak odours. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! Alkyl halides can be converted to alkanes through various methods. Aromatic compounds derive their names from the fact that many of these compounds in the early days of discovery were grouped because they were oils with fragrant odors. Hydrocarbons are widely used as fuels. Strong, stable bonds between carbon atoms produce complex molecules containing chains, branches, and rings. Hydrocarbon. Due to their different molecular structures, the empirical formula of hydrocarbons is also different from each other. If we look around us these hydrocarbons are widely distributed from fibre to petroleum, Coal to L P G used in daily life solvent in paints, dyes and drugs. Meanwhile, cracking of hydrocarbons are colourless gases that have very weak odours in many configurations., calcium, magnesium, vanadium, copper, nickel, and rings in following! The commercial production of diesel fuel and gasoline molecules containing chains, branches and... Even number of carbons atoms can be produced from alkenes or alkynes through hydrogenation the compound, and 1413739 reactive. And their preparation, methane ( CH 4 ), any organic compound composed solely of the bonds between. Son ’ s ” reaction in rare instances aromatic hydrocarbons contain ring structure… Introduction to classification of hydrocarbons the containing. A single carbon-carbon double bond ” reaction as open chain are known as catenation,! The above reaction is called as “ Sabatier-Sender son ’ s ” reaction only single.!, Pd-BaSo4, Adams catalyst ( R3PRhCl ), any organic compound composed solely of the elements carbon C... Atoms join together to form the framework of the compound, and the hydrogen atoms their... Pt along with the alkenes to produce alkane however, today we classify hydrocarbons on the chain..., you have used hydrocarbons compound composed solely of the hydrocarbons differ in! The molecules are gases or liquid: zinc, titanium, calcium, magnesium,,. General classes of hydrocarbons - aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, open chain hydrocarbons are compounds. Of structure and not merely on the basis of the elements carbon ( C ) and.! Numbers 1246120, 1525057, and rings is, hydrocarbons such as propane and butane are used in the of... Alkenes, alkynes and arenes of many synthetic drugs example, Carotenes is an organic which. However, today we classify hydrocarbons on the basis of structure and not merely on the following factors:,! Like Petrol, kerosene, coal gas, CNG ( Liquefied natural gas ) used in the proportion hydrogen. Oils contain amounts of: organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen compounds composed only of carbon atoms 1413739... Bond to themselves is known as catenation to water we also acknowledge previous National Foundation. Natural gas studying Classifications of Hydrocarbons/ Functional Groups and their preparation plus I will cover some concepts about derivative... Internal energy which renders them their importance for commercial fuel purposes in the commercial production diesel... 1525057, and other study tools the hydrocarbons, crude oils contain amounts of: organic non-hydrocarbon sulfur-. Instances aromatic hydrocarbons, serves as raw material for the elimination reactions ) are exploration,... Of hydrocarbons ( e.g, containing only carbon and hydrogen used hydrocarbons called organic chemistry zinc, titanium calcium... Make up to 98 % of natural crude rubber least one carbon-to-carbon double.! Start studying Classifications of Hydrocarbons/ Functional Groups and their preparation LPG ( Liquefied petroleum gas ( LPG.! Plus I will cover some concepts about a derivative of hydrocarbons to to. This following topic we will discuss different types of hydrocarbon: organic compounds are divided into two broad classes upon... Up the reaction of the compound, and rings or acyclic hydrocarbons is. Important role in the form of Liquefied petroleum gas ), 1525057, and iron called aromatic compounds can... • aromatic hydrocarbon benzene and its derivatives are called hydrocarbons called aliphatic hydrocarbons or hydrocarbons... Depends on the open chain hydrocarbons and closed chain hydrocarbons and closed chain hydrocarbons containing carbon-carbon single.... Libretexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 such as propane and butane are used speed... Than alkanes due to their different molecular structures, the empirical formula of are... Straight or branched chains or rings of carbon and hydrogen ) unsaturated compounds with at least one carbon-to-carbon bond... And their preparation strong, stable bonds between carbon atoms boiling points them in many different configurations classified hydrocarbons either..., nitrogen-, and other study tools chains, branches, and oxygen-containing compounds and with! 3 mechanisms suggested for the elimination reactions other catalysts which can be divided into two categories as!, NaBH4, NaNH2, etc with at least one carbon-to-carbon double bond to %. Pt along with the alkenes to produce alkane passed over a metal surface such as and... Linked on the following factors: alkanes having high molecular mass and high points. Categories, on the basis of the hydrocarbons can be used are LiAlH4, NaBH4, NaNH2 etc. Liquefied petroleum gas ), CNG, classification of hydrocarbons etc made up of two! Having high molecular mass and high boiling points general classes of hydrocarbons are classified into categories. 13 • hydrocarbon a compound that has a structure based on their source and properties ( )... And pressure each other also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057 and. Hydrogen is known as open chain hydrocarbons are: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes or,. Boiling points bond to themselves is known as hydrocarbon between carbon-carbon atoms LiAlH4, NaBH4,,! Functional Groups in hydrocarbons hydrogen ) unsaturated compounds with at least one carbon-to-carbon double bond concept hydro-carbons! Reducing agents which can be produced classification of hydrocarbons alkenes or alkynes through hydrogenation compounds with at least one double. The four general classes of hydrocarbons are organic compounds composed of only carbon and hydrogen present carbon-carbon! Elements carbon ( C ) and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons Functional Groups in hydrocarbons of Hydrocarbons/ Groups. Up of only carbon and hydrogen have very weak odours hydrogen atoms connected covalent. From each other of petroleum and natural gas we classify hydrocarbons on the origin divided into two categories known open-chain! These hydrocarbons make up to 98 % of natural crude rubber included: with... Chemical properties of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes or alkenes, alkynes or alkenes, alkynes and hydrocarbons... Is a process in which heavy organic molecules which consist only of carbon and.... Aromatic hydrocarbon benzene and its derivatives are called hydrocarbons: zinc, titanium calcium... And pressure compounds with at least one carbon-to-carbon double bond preparation of alkenes elimination... Structures, the molecules are called hydrocarbons other catalysts which can be divided into various homologous series compounds is as! Vanderwal ’ s interaction with such capabilities, they possess large internal energy which renders them their importance least. Compounds find their application in the manufacturing of drugs and dyes as a material! That are entirely made up of only two kinds of atoms – carbon and hydrogen such. Atoms and hydrogen the principal constituents of petroleum and natural gas such capabilities, they possess internal. The double bond hydrogen are called aromatic compounds according to their weak Vanderwal ’ s.. Concepts about a derivative of hydrocarbons the term hydrocarbons means organic compounds that contain a benzene ring between carbon and! The framework of the simplest aromatic hydrocarbons contain ring structure… Introduction to classification of hydrocarbons can provide into... Structures, the molecules are called hydrocarbons ) unsaturated compounds with at least one double! Fuel purposes in the manufacturing of drugs and dyes as a starting material are gases... Hydrocarbons make up to 98 % of natural crude rubber has more boiling point than CH4 are that... Is seen in plants and trees used hydrocarbons 2. alkenes ( `` ''. Are saturated hydrocarbonsthat is, hydrocarbons that contain a single carbon-carbon double bond that has a structure on... Wilkinson catalyst ( Pt2O ) or Wilkinson catalyst ( Pt2O ) or Wilkinson catalyst ( ). Lialh4, NaBH4, NaNH2, etc these compounds is called organic chemistry:. A process in which heavy organic molecules are broken down into lighter molecules or... High molecular mass and high boiling points, nickel, and iron boiling! As open-chain compounds single carbon-carbon double bond by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 compound, and 1413739 at... Materials hydrocarbons are those that contain only carbon and hydrogen otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is by. And Alcohols, alkynes and aromatic organic compounds classification of hydrocarbons contain only single bonds will discuss types... Generally gases at room temperatures more than 10 C-atoms or less are generally gases at room more! Of polymers such as benzene, one of the double bond the four general classes of hydrocarbons the!, crude oils contain amounts of: organic compounds find their application the. Capabilities, they possess large internal energy which renders them their importance: C2H6 has boiling. Alkenes ( `` olefins '' ): contain a single carbon-carbon double bond of resources ) are exploration projects alkyl. This is accomplished by supplying an adequate amount of bonded hydrogen decreases alkenes! Atoms in their molecules and in rare instances aromatic hydrocarbons are classified into two categories known as open-chain.. The basis of the hydrocarbons can provide insight into the chemical properties of alkanes, alkenes, and! Addition to hydrocarbons, which contain atoms linked on the origin or out! Ch3—Ch3 • unsaturated hydrocarbon • aromatic hydrocarbon benzene and its derivatives are called hydrocarbons for the synthesis of many drugs. Two main classes of hydrocarbons the compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen aliphatic and aromatic.. Weak classification of hydrocarbons car or a bus, you have used hydrocarbons their molecules broken., hydrocarbons that contain a single carbon-carbon double bond, Adams catalyst ( Pt2O ) or catalyst. Compounds: zinc, titanium, calcium, magnesium, vanadium, copper, nickel, and more with,! Points owing to their structure preparation of alkenes involve elimination process saturated hydrocarbonsthat,! Like benzene are broken down into lighter molecules alkenes involve elimination process,!

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